Cấu tạo từ (Word formation)

 

1. VÍ DỤ

 

she is a    

beautiful

girl        (beauty)

Article

Adjective

Noun

—> NOUN

2. NHỮNG QUY TẮC CƠ BẢN

 + Danh từ là từ có hậu tố: – tion, – sion, -er, -or

+ Tính từ là từ có hậu tố : – able, – ful, – less, – al

+ Trạng từ thông thường có hậu tố: – ly

3. NỘI DUNG CHÍNH

3.1.  NOUNS.

 3.1.1. Definition: Noun is a word used as the name of a person, thing, animal, place…

Ex:        Student (person)                            Blackboard (thing)

             Cat (animal)                                  Countryside (place)

3.1.2. The ways to form a noun:

FORM

EXAMPLES

                  AR

a- Verb +  ER

                  OR

–    sailor, actor …

–    teacher, driver, viewer, singer…

–    beggar, liar …

                 ION

b- Verb + ING

                 MENT

–  action, invention, liberation, conclusion …

–  writing, making, liking, cooking, learning…

–  movement, development, investment, punishment, amusement …

c- Noun /Adjective + DOM

– kingdom, freedom, wisdom

d- Noun/Adjective + HOOD

– boyhood, neighborhood, childhood, brotherhood, falsehood.

e- Noun/ Adjective + ISM

–  capitalism, patriotism, terrorism, heroism, communism.

–  socialism, racialism, colonialism

                            NESS

f- Adjective   +   TY

                            ITY

–  happiness, laziness, illness, sickness …

–  cruelty, loyalty, difficulty …

–  possibility, ability, capability, ability, curiosity …

g- Verb         + ANT

– assistant, accountant, applicant, contestant…

h- Adjective         Noun

–  angry →  anger                      – long → length

–  brave →  bravery                 – proud → pride

–  deep  →  depth                     – terrible → terror

–  famous  → fame                  – young → youth

–  high →  height                      – hot → heat

–  true → truth

–  just → justice

i- Verb -> Noun

–  choose →   choice       – live    → life

–  prove  →   proof        – strike → stroke

–  sing    →    song           – advise→ advice

–  enter   →   entry         – fail     → failure

–  feed   →   food          – laugh → laughter

–  renew   →   renewal   – sit     → seat

–  speak   →   speech      – see    → sight

–  sell      →  sale             – die    → death

–  bury     → burial          – lose → loss

3.1.3.The functions of a noun

3.1.3.1 – Subject: – This girl is intelligent.

3.1.3.2 – Object: – She eats a banana.

3.1.3.3 – Complement: – He is a footballer.

3.1.3.4 – Appositive: – Mr. David, a famous doctor, is my father’s friend.

3.1.3.5 – Object of a preposition:Everybody is interested in sports.

3.1.3.6 – Adjective: – The Vietnam War is different from any other one.

3.2.  ADJECTIVES

 3.2.1. Definition: Adjective is a word that modifies a noun. It usually stands before a noun

Ex:  a horse                                  a charming room

      an apple                                  a furnished house this old house

 3.2.2. The way to form an adjective:

FORM

                                         EXAMPLES

Noun – Adjective           

– choir

choral

– neglect

neglected

 

– circle

circular

– picture

picturesque

 

– union

united

– charity

charitable

 

–  fashion

–  honor

fashionable

honorable

–  gold

–  wool

golden

woolen

 

– notice

noticeable

– wood

wooden

 

FORM

                                           EXAMPLES

 

– reason

→ reasonable

– earth      → earthen

–  value

–  terror

→ valuable

→ terrible

–  North      → Northern

–  West        → Western

– sense

→ sensible

– fury        → furious

– horror

→ horrible

– glory       → glorious

–  access

–  luxury

→ accessible

→ luxurious

–  melody    → melodious

–  mystery   → mysterious

– victory

→ victorious

– prosper    → prosperous

–  vapor

–  variety

→ vaporous

→ various

–  bounty     → bounteous

–  clamor    → clamorous

– danger

→ dangerous

– murder    → murderous

– danger

→ dangerous

– disaster    → disastrous

–  advantage → advantageous

–  mountain → mountainous

–  ccourage   → courageous

–  volume   → voluminous

– venom

→ venomous

– mischief → mischievous

–  peril

–  caution

→ perilous

→ cautious

–  advent    → adventitious

–  affection → affectionate

– citrus

→ citreous

– authority → authoritative

– fortune

→ fortunate

– intuition → intuitive

– apprehension→ apprehensive

 

Verb →Adjective

– abhor

→ abhorrent

– vary       → various

 

– obey

→ obedient

– accept    → acceptable

 

–   absorb

–   notice

→ absorbent

→ noticeable

–   admire    → admirable

–   choose   → choosy

 

– compel

→ compelling

– volunteer→ voluntary

 

–   please

–   learn

→ pleasing

→ learned

–   unite      → united

–   comply → compliant

 

– vacate

→ vacant

– grieve     → grievous

 

– marvel

→ marvelous

– prosper    → prosperous

 

–   strain

–   quarrel

→ strenuous

→ quarrelsome

–   study    → studious

–   meddle    → meddlesome

 

– benefit

→ beneficial

– criticize     → critical

 

–   abuse

–   collect

→ abusive

→ collective

–   attend    → attentive

–   compete    → competitive

 

– create

→ creative

– destroy    → destructive

 

– decide

→ decisive

– express    → expressive

 

–   describe

–   affirm

→ descriptive

→ affirmative

–   extend    → extensive

–   decorate    → decorative

 

– image

→ imaginative

– inform    → informative

 

– deceive →deceptive/ deceitful

 

Noun –  FUL

–   harmful

–   handful

–  pocketful

–    useful

–   peaceful – basketful

–   successful – helpful

Noun –  LESS

– childless

– helpless

 

FORM

                                          EXAMPLES

 

–   harmless

–   odorless

–   hopeless

–   useless

–   homeless

–   noiseless

–   thoughtless

Noun –  LY

–      manly

–      yearly

–      brotherly

–      fatherly

–      hourly

–      daily

Noun –  LIKE

–      lifelike

–      warlike

–      statesmanlike

–      childlike

–      godlike

Noun – Y

–  silvery

–  sandy

–  crafty

–  rainy

–  faulty

–  dirty

–  snowy

 

–  starry

–  healthy

–  silky

–  shadowy

–  wintery

Noun –  ISH

–      foolish

–      childish

 

–  selfish

–  amateurish

 

Noun –  AL

–   central

–   accidental

–   traditional

–   occasional

–   personal

–   optional

–   natural

–   magical

–   industrial

–   agricultural

Noun→Adjective

–   difference              different

–   patience                  patient

–   independence independent

–   vigilance                 vigilant

–   distance                 distant

–   circumstance circumstantial

–   volcano                 volcanic

–   sympathy             sympatric

–   hero                      heroic

–   giant                      gigantic

–   energy                   energic

–   metal                     metallic

–   poet                     poetic

–   academy             academic

–   anemia                anemic

–   athlete                   athletic

–   quarrel            quarrelsome

–   trouble           troublesome

–   choir                   choral

–   circle                   circular

–   venom

–   volume

–   peril

–   mischief

–   caution

–   advent

–   citrus

–   affection

–   fortune

–   authority

–   mystery

–   victory

–   prosper

–   vapor

–   variety

–   bounty

–   clamor

–   danger

–   murder

–   danger

venomous voluminous perilous mischievous cautious adventitious citreous affectionate fortunate authoritative mysterious victorious prosperous vaporous various

bounteous clamorous dangerous murderous

dangerous

FORM

                                         EXAMPLES

 

– picture

picturesque

– disaster

disastrous

–   charity

–   fashion

charitable

fashionable

–   advantage

–   courage

advantageous

courageous

– honor

honorable

– mountain

mountainous

– notice

noticeable

– wood

wooden

–   reason

–   sense

reasonable

sensible

–   earth

–   North

earthen

Northern

– horror

horrible

– West

Western

–   gold

–   wool

golden

woolen

–   fury

–   benefit

furious

beneficial

– glory

glorious

– criticize

critical

– apprehension

apprehensive

– abuse

abusive

–   intuition

–   abhor

intuitive

abhorrent

–   attend

–   collect

attentive

collective

– obey

obedient

– compete

competitive

–   absorb

–   acquiesce

absorbent

acquiescent

– create

creative

Verb→Adjective

– admire

admirable

– decide

decisive

 

–   notice

–   choose

noticeable

choosy

–   express

–   extend

expressive

extensive

 

– volunteer

voluntary

– select

selective

 

– compel

compelling

– affirm

affirmative

 

–   learn

–   comply

learned

compliant

–   decorate

–   image

decorative

imaginative

 

– vacate

vacant

– inform

informative

 

–   grieve

–   marvel

grievous

marvelous

–   deceive

–   meddle

deceptive / deceitful

meddlesome

 

– study

studious

   
 

– quarrel

quarrelsome

   

 3.2.3- The uses of adjective

3.2.3.1– Attribute adjective (tính ngữ) bổ nghĩa cho danh từ phía sau:

Ex: intelligent student large room

big house

3.2.3.2– Predicative adjectives (vị ngữ) chỉ tính cách của chủ ngữ nhờ những động từ BE / LINKING, VERBS (become / get / look / seem…)

Ex: – My brother is young

– You look tired

3.2.3.3– Object compliment (bổ nghĩa cho tân ngữ) chỉ tích cách của tân ngữ nhờ các động từ: find, make, set, keep, leave…

Ex: I found this lesson difficult.

The sun keeps us warm.

3.2.3.4 -The adjective must be placed after the noun of time, of measurement or  words  (something,  anything, nothing)

Ex: Twenty years old Five yards long Nothing strange

I didn’t notice anything wrong with him.

 3.3- ADVERBS

 3.3.1- Definition: Adverbs express how, when, or where an action is done

3.3.1.1– Adverbs of manner: express how an action is done

actively

calmly

fast

late

together

so

alone

somehow

carefully

anyhow

also

how

Ex: We went to school together The birds sang sweetly

3.3.1.2– Adverbs of time: express when an action is done

today once

before

since

now

soon

always

seldom

rarely already

early

ago

then

often

sometimes

 

Ex: It often rains in the tropics.

I have never seen a seahorse.

3.3.1.3– Adverbs of place: express where an action is done

here      in

out         above   below    past

under

far

everywhere

down    up

around    along     way      upstairs

near

there

 

Ex: I followed him everywhere Come in

 3.3.2- The positions of adverbs

3.3.2.1Adverbs which modify the meaning of adjectives or other adverbs are placed before the word modified.

Ex: She is very beautiful

                           (Adj)

He sings very well

                    (Adv)

3.3.2.2Adverbs which modify the meaning of a whole sentence are placed at the beginning  of  the sentence.

Ex: Usually we go to school by motor cycle.

3.3.2.3– Adverbs which modify the meaning of verbs.

Ex: He is running fast.

I live here.

I am speaking now.

 3.3.3The way to form adverbs:

ADJECTIVE     +   LY   → ADVERB OF MANNER

Notes:

–  There is a change of the final vowel when necessary

Ex:  lucky   →    luckily happy   →    happily slow      →     slowly

–  Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives

Ex: – I went to New York by a fast train.

                                                (Adj)

– He ran

      (Adv)

– We were late for school. (Adj)

– We went to school

         (Adv)

3.4- VERBS

 3.4.1- Definition: A verb is a word or a group which expresses an action or state of being

3.4.1.1– Transitive verb: is one which is used with an object

Ex: The waiter brings coffee (Object) The student learns English (Object)

3.4.1.2Intransitive verb: is one which is used without an object. It can not be used in the passive voice.

Ex: The sun rises.

The baby is sleeping.

Notes:

–  Most of English verbs are used both transitively and intransitively

Ex: – The boy rings the bell.

– The bell rings.

– The girl is singing a song

– The girl is singing

–  Few verbs are used transitively or intransitively

Ex: – The boy lays the book.(Object)

– The boy is lying on the

– He sets the bird

– He sits on the

 3.4.1.3– Auxiliary verb: Auxiliary verb is one which helps other verbs to form tenses, moods or voices.

  • The auxiliary verbs : be, will, shall, do,

Ex: – He is studying English

– She will come to the

– An apple is eaten by

– They have gone

– Tom doesn’t understand the

3.4.1.4– Modal verb: Modal verb is one which can’t conjugate in all tenses, and moods.

  • The modal verbs are: will, shall, can, may, might, need, dare, used to, ought to

Ex: – He can swim.

  • Can’t he swim ?

 3.4.2- The ways to form verbs

FORM

                                          EXAMPLES

NOUN → VERB

camp

encamp

horror

horrify

circle

encircle

justice

justify

courage

encourage

liquid

liquefy

danger

endanger

terror

terrify

roll

enroll

belief

believe

slavery

enslaver

blood

bleed

tomb

entomb

brass

braze

power

empower

glass

glaze

calm

becalm

deceit

deceive

friend

befriend

deed

do

company

accompany

endurance

endure

custom

accustom

food

feed

actor

act

gold

gild

creator

create

grief

grieve

addition

add

growth

grow

circulation

circulate

knee

kneel

competition

compete

knowledge

know

composition

compose

life

live

description

describe

pleasure

please

dictation

dictate

product

produce

division

divide

proof

prove

education

educate

relief

relieve

illustration

illustrate

sale

sell

imitation

imitate

shelf

shelve

obligation

obligate

song

sing

provision

provide

speech

speak

solution

solve

success

succeed

suspicious

suspect

thought

think

liberty

liberate

price

prize

wreath

wreathe

tale

tell

bath

bathe

colony

colonize

breath

breathe

drama

dramatize

cloth

clothe

moisture

moisturize

bright

brighten

nation

nationalize

broad

broaden

sympathy

sympathize

sweet

sweeten

vandal

vandalize

trial

try

vapor

vaporize

dirt

dirty

vitality

vitalize

FORM

                                    EXAMPLES

 

beauty

beautify

vacancy

vacate

class

classify

vaccine

vaccinate

glory

glorify

 

ADJECTIVE →VERB

deep

deepen

large

enlarge

dark

darken

modern

modernize

fat

fatten

simple

simplify

short

shorten

cool

cool

sharp

sharpen

full

fill

straight

straighten

hale

heal

tight

tighten

weak

weaken

wide

widen

 

4. ÁP DỤNG THỰC TIỄN

 4.1- SUBJECT + VERB + ADJ/ ADV/ NOUN.

 4.1.1- Subject + be / linking verbs + Adjective (linking verbs: become, look, seem, turns out,  find, make,  set, keep …)

4.1.2- Subject + Verb + Adverb

Ex: – The flowers are fresh (Adj)

  • Peter ran faster than I did.(Adv)
  • We are late for school (Adj)
  • We go to school late. (Adv)
  • I feel interested in this book (Adj)

4.1.3- Subject + Verb + Noun

mạo từ (a / an / the).     Adj       Noun

  • Từ chỉ định (this / that / these / those).
  • Từ bất định (some / many / any).
  • Từ sở hữu (my / her / our …).

Ex: – She is a beautiful girl. (beauty)

  • He has a preference for english novels. (prefer)

 4.1.4- Subject + Verb + the + Adjective (Dùng như danh từ)

Ex: – Our pupils are raising money for the poor. (poor)

                                                                        (Adj)

– The rich are always selfish. (rich) Adj

–  Ngoài các tính từ thông thường, ta cũng có thể sử dụng động từ : past participle (Ved / V2 ), present participle (V-ing)

  • Present participle: dùng như tính từ mang tính chủ động bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đã tác động, danh từ gây ra hành động đó.
  • Past participle : dùng như tính từ mang tính bị động, bổ nghĩa cho danh từ nhận lấy sự tác động hành động đó (ngoài sự phân biệt về nghĩa, ta còn có thẻ căn cứ vào hình thái của chủ ngữ)

– Ex: It was a very exciting football match. (excite)

↓                   present participle

Subject (thing / animal)

The children were excited in Christmas day. (excite)

↓                    past participle

Subject (person / people)

4.2- SUBJECT + VERB + TO VERB (INFINITIVE)

Ex: – I like George but I think he pretends to talk too much.

– I decide not to go out because of the weather.

Notes:

–  Dare + bare infinitive / to Verb (infinitive)

  • Daren’t + bare infinitive

Ex:- I wouldn’t dare ask him.

  • I would not dare to ask

I daren’t tell him what happened

4.3- SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT + TO VERB (INFINITIVE)

Ex: – Remind me  to phone Ann tomorrow.

  • I got Jack to repair my

4.4- SUBJECT   + VERB + BARE INFINITIVE

Ex: – I would rather do it later.

– He can solve the

 4.5-  SUBJECT   + VERB + OBJECT + BARE INFINITIVE

Ex: – His mother makes him go to bed at 9 o’clock.

– The teacher had his students do.

4.6- SUBJECT + VERB + V_ING

Ex: – I don’t fancy going out this evening.

  • I’ll do the shopping when I have finished cleaning the
  • When I’m on holiday, I enjoy not having to get up

Notes:

–  Dùng V_ing sau các thành ngữ

It’s no use

It’s no good

There’s no point in

It’s (not) worth

(have) difficulty

a waste of time / money

spend / waste (time)

Ex: – I had difficulty finding a place to live

– I spent hours trying to repair the clock

–  Chúng ta dùng V_ing sau ñộng từ “go” để chỉ một số họat động (thể thao)

go shopping            go sailing                      go climbing                           go fishing

go swimming          go sightseeing               go skiing                               go riding

4.7- VERB + TO INFINITIVE / V_ING

 4.7.1- Love, like, begin, start, intend, continue + to V(infinitive) / V_ing

(không có sự thay đổi nghĩa đáng kể)

4.7.2- Có một số động từ vừa theo sau là V_ing hoặc To infinitive có sự thay đổi nghĩa:

+ Verb + to V(infinitive): mang ý nghĩa của một mục đích, một dự định hoặc một trách nhiệm trong tương lai.

+ Verb + V_ing: diễn tả một số việc ñã diễn ra trong quá khứ.

  • REMEMBER + to V(infinitive) : nhớ để thực hiện
  • REMEMBER + V_ing: nhớ lại sự việc đã ñược thưc hiện

Ex: – He remembers to lock the door.

– He remembers locking the

  • TRY + To V(infinitive): cố gắng thực hiện
  • TRY + V_ing : thử làm

Ex: – I’m very tired. I tried to keep my eyes open but I couldn’t.

– I’ve got a terrible headache. I tried taking an aspirin but it didn’t

  • STOP + To V(infinitive): dừng lại để làm việc gì.
  • STOP + V_ing : từ bỏ làm một việc gì

Ex: – Stop talking in the class!

– He stopped to smoke a cigarrete. But it was so windy that he failed to do

  • REGRET+ To V(infinitive): hối tiếc để làm việc gì.
  • REGERT + V_ing: hối tiếc đã làm việc gì.

Ex: A: I regret to inform that you failed the exam.

B: Oh, dear! I regret not studying hard. 

  • NEED + To V(infinitive): cần thiết để làm việc gì.
  • NEED + Ving: cần được làm.

Ex: – I need to take more exercises.

– The batteries in the radio need changing / to be changed.

Notes: CÁC CẶP ĐỘNG TỪ SAU: permit = allow (cho phép)

advise = recommend (khuyên bảo)

Có hai cách viết cho những động từ trên:

  • SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT + TO VERB (INFINITIVE) SUBJECT + VERB + V_ing

Ex: – The police didn’t allow us to go there.

– The police didn’t allow going

– The doctor recommended me to take that medicine before

– The doctor recommened taking that medicine before

  • TO BE ALLOWED / PERMITTED + TO DO SOMETHING: ñược phép làm gì

Ex: – You aren’t allowed to use the office phone for personal calls.

– She was allowed to visit him.

 4.8.- SUBJECT + VERB + IT + ADJ / NOUN + TO VERB(INFINITIVE).

Ex:- He doesn’t think it interesting to talk with John.

– They considered it a great honor to be invited to your wedding

 4.9.- NOUN / VING / TO VERB (INFINITIVE) + V + O

Ex: – To succeed in an examination is not an easy thing.

– Swimming is a good

– Speech is silver but silence is

 4.10.-ADV + S + V + O ( vị trí thông thường của trạng từ nằm ở cuối câu, đầu câu, hay ở giữa tùy theo vị  trí của trạng từ cần điền)

Ex: -Have you finished the final report yet?

– She looks thin but actually she is very

– I’m extremely sorry for the

– Computers are recent achievements in our I have read these scientific papers recently

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